Wireless network connection validating identity firewalled
Before using Nmap on UNIX type systems (LINUX, BSD, and Mac OS X), you need to obtain root privileges via SUDO to use any features that cause Nmap to create custom packets.Nmap can be run without administrative privileges, but some of the advanced scanning techniques such as SYN scanning and anything that needs to access the raw IP stack will fail.Starting Nmap 5.21 ( Interesting ports on 172.16.1.3: Not shown: 1707 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE 135/tcp open msrpc 139/tcp open netbios-ssn 445/tcp open microsoft-ds 3389/tcp open ms-term-serv MAC Address: 00:1A:92:0A:62: B1 (Asustek Computer) Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 2.226 seconds Scanning for UDP ports is handled differently.Because UDP doesn't have a handshake process like TCP, the UDP packet must be crafted in a manner that causes the operating system to respond back.If you send a UDP packet to a closed port on a server, the TCP/IP stack is supposed to send an ICMP port unreachable message back.If a host does not send this response, it is assumed that the port is open.Nmap enables you to perform versioning (-s V) and OS detections (-O) separately or together as a combined command (-A): nmap –A 127.0.0.1 Starting Nmap 5.21 ( Interesting ports on 172.16.1.253: Not shown: 1707 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 22/tcp open ssh Cisco SSH 1.25 (protocol 1.99) 23/tcp open telnet Cisco router 80/tcp open http Cisco IOS administrative httpd 443/tcp open https?MAC Address: : E8:3C: EE:40 (Cisco Systems) Device type: switch Running: Cisco IOS 12.
One thing is certain about security auditing tools: The power and sophistication of tools that auditors have at their disposal increase exponentially every year.
There are also a number of free whitepapers and guides on the Internet.
The following sections discuss a few commercial and open source assessment tools that can be used to effectively audit Cisco networks.
Nmap is the network and service scanning tool of choice for most security professionals.
It is a free, open source application available on all UNIX and Windows operating systems.
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There are many books written from the security tool perspective, with indepth discussions of the various uses, switches, and techniques to implement these programs.