By early 1859, Cavour had caused a crisis that provoked the Austrians to send an ultimatum demanding Piedmontese disarmament.
As part of the "plan", Cavour rejected the ultimatum which led to the subsequent war with the Austrians.
There he displayed unusual qualities of military leadership while participating in the revolt of the state of Rio Grande do Sul against Brazil, as well as later in a civil war in Uruguay.
In 1848, Garibaldi traveled to the United States settled in Staten Island, New York, and later became a US citizen.
A new revolutionary leader, Giuseppe Garibaldi, could not avoid Rome's destruction by the French in 1849.
Only Sardinia held firm to their constitutional government Cavour was able to persuade Napoleon to a secretly planned war against Austria.
The Kingdom of Sardinia consisted of the island of Sardinia and the region called Piedmont in northwestern Italy.
The Kingdom of Sicily that occupied the island of Sicily and the entire southern half of the Italian peninsula .
Liberal ideas from France and Britain spread rapidly, and from 1789 the French Revolution became the genesis of "liberal Italians".
(a) the Austrian occupation of Lombardy and Venice in the north, (b) the principality under the sovereignty of the pope, i.e.
the Papal States that controlled the center of the Italian peninsula; and (c) the existence of various states that had maintained independence, such as the Kingdom of Sardinia, also called Piedmont-Sardinia, which located at the French border had slowly expanded since the Middle Ages and was considered the most advanced state in Italy.
An insurrection in 1848 caused pope Pius IX to flee Rome and a republic was proclaimed.
King Charles Albert of Sardinia mobilized his army and marched to the assistance of Lombardy and joined in the war to drive the Austrians from Italian soil.