Radiocarbon dating vs carbon dating

Extraordinary numbers of seamounts are volcanically active (Hillier & Watts, 2007).

Moreover, active fracture zones also offer a preferred escape route for magmatic CO also finds its way into aquifers (eg.

Volatiles, such as CO is the second most abundantly emitted volcanic gas next to steam.

Although you might imagine that there is no air in the mantle, the chemical conditions favour oxidation, and shortages of oxygen ions are rare enough to ensure a strong presence of CO rather than a representative sample of the Troposphere.

To make matters worse, the reported output of any individual volcano is itself an estimate based on limited rather than complete measurement.

One may reasonably assume that in each case, such estimates are based on a representative and statistically significant quantity of empirical measurements.

A brief survey of the literature concerning volcanogenic carbon dioxide emission finds that estimates of subaerial emission totals fail to account for the diversity of volcanic emissions and are unprepared for individual outliers that dominate known volcanic emissions.

Based on this brief literature survey, we may conclude that volcanic CO is exclusively anthropogenic.The "solid earth", a term popular amongst climatologists, is a deceptive misnomer as the aesthenosphere is a deeply convecting fluid upon which flexible sheets of crust (i.e. This deeply convecting fluid tears these delicate plates apart at rift zones and crushes them together like the bonnet of a wrecked car at convergence zones.Mountains rise out of fold belts resulting from the crumpling of plates, and where differences in plate buoyancy allow, one plate rides over another, forcing the other plate to follow the convection current into the aesthenosphere.If the statement of the USGS concerning volcanic CO is any indication of the reliability of expert consensus, it would seem that verifiable facts are eminently more trustworthy than professional opinion. Kerrick (2001) takes a grand total of 19 subaerial volcanoes, which on p.568 is described as only 10% of "more than 100 subaerial volcanoes".

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