Online dating after cancer
When PD-1 attaches to another protein called PDL-1 on a cancer cell, it stops the T cell from killing the cancer cell.
PD-1 inhibitors attach to PDL-1 and allow the T cells to kill cancer cells.
The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Combination chemotherapy is treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.
The binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 keeps T cells from killing tumor cells in the body (left panel).Different types of treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer.Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials.The BCG is given in a solution that is placed directly into the bladder using a catheter (thin tube).For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice.
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Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials.