Developing and validating a tool to measure parenting self efficacy

Celiac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed people.

The only treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet.

Bandura (1997) emphasizes the convenience of specifically evaluating self-efficacy expectation and in a way that is closely linked to the demands of a particular situation, rather than making general evaluations of that situation.

We have not found any scale to assess specific self-efficacy in celiac patients.

Within Social Cognitive Theory, Bandura defines self-efficacy as “beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1997, p.3).

Thus, the expectation of self-efficacy has been widely studied in many spheres such as physical activity (Schwarzer et al., 2008), tobacco addiction (Hendricks et al., 2010), multiple sclerosis (Chiu et al., 2011), or patients with arthritis (Lorig et al., 2014).

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed people (Ludvigsson et al., 2013).

Numerous studies report a prevalence of between and 0, for the USA and Europe (Leffler et al., 2008), while 0 is a widely accepted figure (Catassi et al., 2007).

All three scales provide solid psychometric information (Scherbaum et al., 2006) but none of them provide a specific measure of self-efficacy.Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and directions for future research are identified.The aim of this study was to develop a scale to assess the levels of specific self-efficacy in order to enhance adherence to a gluten-free diet and the life quality of celiac patients.The only valid treatment known today is a lifelong strict gluten-free diet (GFD).Despite the benefits of a GFD, rates for strict adherence range from 42 to 91% depending on definition and method of assessment (Hall et al., 2009).

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