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An estimated 2,000,000 Rwandans, mostly Hutus, were displaced and became refugees.
The genocide was planned by members of the core political elite, many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government.
The destruction of infrastructure and the severe depopulation of the country crippled the economy, challenging the nascent government to achieve rapid economic growth and stabilization.
The RPF military victory and installation of an RPF-dominated government prompted many Hutus to flee to neighboring countries, particularly in the eastern portion of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), where the Hutu genocidaires began to regroup in refugee camps along the border with Rwanda.
The genocide served as an impetus for creating the International Criminal Court to eliminate the need for ad hoc tribunals to prosecute genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the Bantu migrations: one theory is that the first settlers were Hutu, while the Tutsi migrated later and formed a distinct racial group, possibly of Cushitic origin.
The genocide took place in the context of the Rwandan Civil War, a conflict beginning in 1990 between the Hutu-led government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which largely consisted of Tutsi refugees whose families had fled to Uganda after the 1959 Hutu revolt against colonial rule.Catholic missionaries increasingly viewed themselves as responsible for empowering the underprivileged Hutu rather than the Tutsi elite, leading rapidly to the formation of a sizeable Hutu clergy and educated elite that provided a new counterbalance to the established political order.In 1957, a group of Hutu scholars wrote the "Bahutu Manifesto".Large Rwandan Hutu and Tutsi populations continue to live as refugees throughout the region.Today, Rwanda has two public holidays mourning the genocide.